THE SERVICE FROM ITS BEGINNING TO DATE
By Decision 91/396/EEC of 29 July 1991 the European Communities Council invited Member States to adopt 112 (one-one-two) as the Single European emergency Number.
The service was actually introduced by the subsequent Directive 2002/22/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 March 2002 envisaging that, in addition to the existing national emergency numbers (113, 112, 115 and 118), all users “can call the emergency services free of charge dialing the single European emergency Number 112”. The Directive also envisages that “all providers of public telephone networks make, if technically feasible, the information on the location of the call available to the authorities responsible for the emergency services”.
Due to non-compliance with the obligation to provide information on the location of the emergency calls, Italy was subject to an infringement procedure which on 15 January 2009 led to a conviction by the European Court of Justice. The closing of the infringement procedure was made possible by the adoption of a temporary solution ensured through the Carabinieri Corps operations rooms, and by a final solution with the setting up of a two-level answering system, the first for the call receipt and the second for the intervention management.
After an experimental period, the enabling law No. 124 of 7 August 2015, the so-called Madia Law on the rationalization of public administrations, provided for the establishment of the Single European emergency Number 112 (one-one-two) with operations rooms to be set up at regional level.
The service operating model identified by the legislator ensures an integrated and coordinated management and allows, by filtering the “inappropriate” calls (e.g.., calls made by mistake, for information or as a joke), the emergency bodies to exclusively deal with emergency calls.
The Single European emergency Number Service 112 (one-one-two) is implemented according to the procedures defined by the Protocols of Understanding signed by the Ministry of the Interior and the regions concerned, in conformity with what established by the Consultative Commission under section 75bis, subsection 2, of Legislative Decree No. 259/2003 (code of electronic communications).
The Ministry of the Interior, in agreement with the Ministry of Economic Development, is entrusted with guidance and coordination powers in order to identify and implement the initiatives for the full realization of the Single European emergency Number (section 75bis, subsection 1, code of electronic communications).
The model envisages the setting up of Centrali Uniche di Risposta (CUR – Public Safety Answer Point) where all the emergency calls converge to be then transferred to the body responsible for the management of the specific emergency situation (National Police, Carabinieri Corps, Fire Department, Emergency Medical Service).
Pending the setting up of CUR all over the national territory, in the areas where they are not present the Single European emergency Number 112 Service is ensured by the Carabinieri Corps operations rooms.
SEN 1 1 2 FOR VEHICLES: THE E-CALL SYSTEM
Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 July 2010 provides for the standardized setting up throughout the European territory of an interoperable electronic service of emergency calls named e-Call.
In case of road accident the e-Call system installed on the vehicle by the car manufacturer will automatically contact the Public Safety Answer Point (CUR) and send the information on the vehicle involved, including its exact location. At the same time, the system will allow the people inside the vehicle, even if unconscious, to be automatically connected with the CUR in order to evaluate the emergency service to be provided.